Aquaya conducts rigorous research to identify effective strategies for improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

Peer Reviewed Publications

Please contact us at for full reprints of any of the below articles.

  1. Mertens, A., Balakrishnan, K., Ramaswamy, P., Rajkumar, P., Ramaprabha, P., Durairaj, N., Hubbard, A.E., Khush, R., Colford Jr., J.M., Arnold, B.F. (2019). Associations between High Temperature, Heavy Rainfall, and Diarrhea among Young Children in Rural Tamil Nadu, India: A Prospective Cohort Study. Environmental Health Perspectives: 127(4); doi:10.1289/EHP3711.
  2. Brown, J., Albert, J., Whittington, D. (2019). Community-Led Total Sanitation Moves the Needle on Ending Open Defecation in Zambia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.19-0151.
  3. MacLeod, C., Peletz, R., Kere, F., M’Baye, A., Onyango, M., Aw, S., El Hadj Issabre, M., Tung, R., Khush, R. (2019). Are Presence/Absence Microbial Tests Appropriate for Monitoring Large Urban Water Supplies in Sub-Saharan Africa? Water. 11,491; doi:10.3390/w11030491.
  4. Acey, C., Kisiangani, J., Ronoh, P., Delaire, C., Makena, E., Norman, G., Levine, D., Khush, R., Peletz, R. (2019). Cross-Subsidies for Improved Sanitation in Low Income Settlements: Assessing the Willingness to Pay of Water Utility Customers in Kenyan Cities. World Development. 115: 160-177.
  5. Kumpel, E., Delaire, C., Peletz, R., Kisiangani, J., Rinehold, A., De France, J., Sutherland, D., Khush, R. (2018). Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15,1223; doi:10.3390/ijerph15061223.
  6. Peletz, R., Kisiangani, J., Bonham, M., Ronoh, P., Delaire, C., Kumpel, E., Marks, S., Khush, R. (2018). Why do water quality monitoring programs succeed or fail? A qualitative comparative analysis of regulated testing systems in sub-Saharan AfricaInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 221: 907-920.
  7. Murray, A.L., Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Khush, R., Lantagne, D.S. (2018). The effect of sodium thiosulfate dechlorination on fecal indicator bacteria enumeration: laboratory and field dataJournal of Water and Health. 16,1:70-77.
  8. Taylor, D., Khush, R., Peletz, R., Kumpel, E. (2018). Efficacy of Microbial Sampling Recommendations and Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. Water Research. 134: 115-125.
  9. Peletz, R., Cock-Esteb, A., Ysenburg, D., Haji, S., Khush, R., Dupas, P. (2017). Supply and Demand for Improved Sanitation: Results from Randomized Pricing Experiments in Rural Tanzania. Environmental Science and Technology. 51,12: 7138-7147.
  10. Delaire, C., Peletz, R., Kumple, E., Kisiangani, J., Bain, R., Khush, R. (2017). How Much will it Cost to Monitor Microbial Water Quality in sub-Saharan Africa? Environmental Science and Technology. 51,11: 5869-5878.
  11. Misati, A.G., Ogendi, G., Peletz, R., Khush, R., Kumple, E. (2017). Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14,152; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020152.
  12. Kumpel, E., Cock-Esteb, A., Duret, M., de Waal, D., Khush, R (2017). Seasonal Variation in Drinking and Domestic Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 96,2: 437-445.
  13. Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Bonham, M., Khush, R. (2016). Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in sub-Saharan Africa using Regulated Monitoring Data. Environmental Science and Technology. 50,20: 10869-10876.
  14. Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Albert, J., de Waal, D., Hirn, M., Danilenko, A., Uhl, V., Daw, A., Khush, R. (2016). Urban Water Services in Fragile States: A Comparison of Water Quality Between Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Monrovia, Liberia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 95, 1: 229-238.
  15. Peletz R., Kumpel E., Bonham M., Rahman Z., Khush R. (2016). To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality MonitoringInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 3: 275.
  16. Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Bonham, M., Fay, A., Cock-Esteb, A., Khush, R. (2015). When are Mobile Phone Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan AfricaInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 9: 10846-10860.
  17. Najnin N. et al. 2015. Explaining Low Rates of Sustained use of Siphon Filters: Evidence from Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Bangladesh. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 20, 4: 471-483.
  18. Arnold BF. et al. 2015. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Tale for Longitudinal Studies. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 92, 1: 159-162.
  19. Luoto J. et al. 2014. Nudging to Use: Achieving Safe Water Behaviors in Kenya and Bangladesh. Journal of Development Economics.110:13-21.
  20. Khush RS et al. 2013. H2S as an Indicator of Water Supply Vulnerability and Health Risk in Low-Resource Settings: A Prospective Cohort Study. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published online May 28, 2013; doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0067.
  21. Luoto J et. al. 2012. Learning to Dislike Safe Water Products: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Direct and Peer Experience on Willingness to Pay. Environmental Science and Technology. 46, 11:6244-6251.
  22. Torkelson A et al. 2012. Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Silane-Coated Sand Filter for the Removal of Bacteria and Viruses from Drinking Water. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 113, 5:1196-1207.
  23. Rahman Z et al. 2011. A Comparative Assessment of Institutional Frameworks for Managing Drinking Water Quality. The Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development. 1, 4: 242-258.
  24. Luoto J et al. 2011. What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 6, 10:e26132.
  25. Arnold BF et al. 2010. Causal Inference Methods to Study Nonrandomized, Preexisting Development Interventions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107, 52:22605-22610
  26. Albert J et al. 2010. End-User Preferences for and Performance of Competing POU Water Treatment Technologies among the Rural Poor of Kenya. Environmental Science and Technology. 44, 12:4426-4432.
  27. Clasen T et al. 2006. The Drinking Water Response to the Indian Ocean Tsunami, including the Role of Household Water Treatment. Disaster Prevention and Management. 15, 1:190-201.

Research briefs:

  1. Can sanitary surveys replace water quality testing? 2018
  2. Les Inspections Sanitaires Peuvent-Elles Remplacer Les Analyses de Qualité de L’eau? 2018
  3. How much will it cost to monitor microbial drinking water quality in sub-Saharan Africa? 2018
  4. Surveillance de la Qualité Microbiologique de L’eau de Boisson en Afrique Sub-Saharienne: Quel Coût? 2018
  5. What is the microbial quality of drinking water in Africa? 2018
  6. Quelle est la qualite microbienne de l’eau en Afrique? 2018
  7. How can mobile phones contribute to water quality monitoring efforts in Africa? 2017
  8. Les téléphones portables peuvent-ils faciliter le contrôle de la qualité de l’eau en Afrique? 2017
  9. Drinking water is not sufficiently tested for microbial contamination in sub-Saharan Africa. 2016
  10. La présence de microbes dans l’eau de boisson n’est pas suffisamment contrôlée en Afrique subsaharienne. 2016

Additional publications:

  1. Kisiangani, J., MacLeod, C., Acey, C., Levine, D., Ronoh, P., Makena, E., Norman, G., Khush, R., Delaire, C., Peletz, R. (2018). Are Kenyan Water Customers Willing To Pay a Pro-Poor Sanitation Surcharge? 41st WEDC International Conference: Transformation Towards Sustainable and Resilient WASH Services. Paper 2905.
  2. Ronoh, P., Kones, J., MacLeod, C., Delaire, C., Peletz, R., Kisiangani, J., Luoto, J., Khush, R. (2018). Demand for Plastic Latrine Slabs in Rural Kenya and Tanzania. 41st WEDC International Conference: Transformation Towards Sustainable and Resilient WASH Services. Paper 2932.
  3. Kombat, Mashoud. (2018). Sanitation Initiative Launched in Asutifi-North District.
  4. Kisiangani, J., Khush, R. (2016). Drinking Water is Not Sufficiently Tested for Microbial Contamination in Sub-Saharan Africa. Share Water. Technical Journal No. 4: 26-29
  5. Murkomen, B., Peletz, R., Kumpel, E., Bonham, M., Khush, R. (2016). The Eminent Public Health Problem of Deficient Water Quality Monitoring in Kenya. Policy Brief, Kenya Ministry of Health. April 2016
  6. Kayando-Aulla, K., Kumpel, E., Peletz, R. (2015). How many Kenyans are drinking unsafe water? Using microbial water quality data to estimate coverage in Nyanza Province. Shared Sanitation, Hygiene, Information & Tales (Sshit) Magazine. Kenya Ministry of Health. March 2015
  7. Peletz, R., Rahman, Z., Bonham, M., Aleru, L., Khush, R. (2013). Monitoring for Safe Water: evaluating microbial water quality testing constraints across Africa. Water 21. October 2013: 35-36
  8. Ball, M., Rahman, Z., Champanis, M., Rivett, U., Khush, R. (2013). Mobile Data Tools for Improving Information Flow in WASH: Lessons from three field pilots. IRC Symposium 2013: Monitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  9. Rahman, Z., Aleru, L., Bonham, M., Peletz, R., Khush, R. (2013). Constraints to Microbial Water Quality Testing. Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment. 36th WEDC International Conference. Nakuru, Kenya
  10. A Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluating Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Programmes. World Health Organization & UNICEF. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. 2012
  11. Water Business Kit – Kenya. Aquaya and the International Finance Corporation. Nairobi, Kenya. 2012
  12. Luoto, J., Levine, D., Albert, J. (2011). Information and Persuasion. Achieving Safe Water Behaviors in Kenya. RAND Corporation Working Paper. WR-885.
  13. SSAWA Market Brief No. 2: The Market for Water Treatment and Vending Enterprises in Kenya. Aquaya and the International Finance Corporation, Nairobi. 2011
  14. Rahman Z., Khush, R., Gundry, S. (2010). Aquatest: Expanding Microbial Water Quality Testing for Drinking Water Management. Drinking Water Safety International. 1, 4: 15-17
  15. Combatting Waterborne Disease at the Household Level. (2007) The International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.

Additional Reports

Water Business Kit: Kenya

The Water Business Kit: Kenya is a joint publication by Aquaya and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The kit provides a step-by-step guide for starting and managing a water treatment and vending business in Kenya.


Kenya Water Market Survey

The Kenya Water Market Survey is a joint publication by Aquaya and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). This report describes our assessments of consumer demand for treated water among different market segments in Kenya.



‘Aquatest: Expanding Microbial Water Quality Testing for Drinking Water Management’ provides an overview of the Aquatest research consortium’s efforts to develop appropriate technologies for water testing in low resource settings.


Aquaya has studied and optimized water quality testing strategies in low-resource settings for over 10 years. We are happy to provide insights to help your organization develop or improve a monitoring program. Please reach out by contacting us.

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